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    Data presentation

    Throughout this publication, values presented in the columns and rows of tables may not sum to the totals shown due to missing and not reported values, as well as rounding. Totals reported include missing and not stated values. The percentages shown in the tables are calculated excluding the missing and not stated values, unless indicated otherwise. Percentage distributions may not sum to 100 due to rounding. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) has strict confidentiality policies which have their basis in section 29 of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Act 1987 (AIHW Act) and the Privacy Act 1988 (Privacy Act). Cells in tables may be suppressed for either confidentiality reasons or where estimates are based on small numbers, resulting in low reliability. Information that results in attribute disclosure will be suppressed unless agreement from the particular jurisdiction to publish the data has been obtained.

    Population rates

    In this publication, crude rates were calculated using the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated resident population (ERP) at the midpoint of the data range (for example, rates for 2014–15 data were calculated using the ERP at 31 December 2014, while rates for 2014 calendar year data were calculated using ERP at 30 June 2014).

    Following the 2011 Census of Population and Housing, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) has rebased Australian population estimates back to 1991 (June 2013). This rebasing had a significant impact on the population time series; therefore rates have been recalculated for previous years using the rebased ERP. The exception is for data presented by Indigenous status.Rebased Indigenous population estimates were available in April 2014; thus sections published on MHSA prior to this date use 2006 Census based ERP for Indigenous analysis. Crude rates for Indigenous status, country of birth and remoteness area data were calculated using ERP at 30 June of the relevant year.

    Data for Victoria were not available for the 2011–12 and 2012–13 reporting period for the community mental health care section of Mental health services in Australia. Crude rates for national totals in this section were calculated by subtracting Victorian populations data from the national total. These population data were used in the denominator for calculating national 'Total' crude rates for males, females and persons.

    Data for the ACT were not available for the 2014–15 reporting period for community mental health care, residential mental health care, admitted patient, emergency department and public ambulatory-equivalent section of Mental health services in Australia. Crude rates for national totals in these sections were calculated by subtracting ACT populations data from the National total. These population data were used in the denominator for calculating national 'Total' crude rates for males, females and persons.

    Age-standardised rates

    In this publication, population rates are adjusted (standardised) for age to facilitate comparisons between between Indigenous Australians and other Australians, as these populations have different age structures. This publication uses direct standardisation in which age-specific rates are applied to a standard population (the ERP as at 30 June 2001 unless otherwise specified). This effectively removes the influence of age structure on the calculated rate that is described as the age-standardised rate. The method used for this calculation comprises 3 steps:

    1. Calculate the crude age-specific rate for each 5-year age group.
    2. Calculate the expected number of cases in each 5-year age group by multiplying the age‑specific rates by the corresponding standard population and dividing by the base number for the rate calculation (for example 100,000), giving the expected number of cases.
    3. Sum the expected number of cases in each age group to give the
      age-standardised total expected number. Divide this sum by the total of the standard population and multiply by the applicable base number (100,000 in this example).

    In some instances in this publication where the numbers in particular 5-year age groups are very small (less than 5), neighbouring age groups have been combined to enable the calculation of a meaningful crude rate.

    Data for Victoria were not available for the 2011–12 and 2012–13 reporting period for the community mental health care section of Mental health services in Australia. Age-standardised rates for this section were calculated excluding Victorian population data.

    Data for the ACT were not available for the 2014–15 reporting period for community mental health care, residential mental health care, admitted patient, emergency department and public ambulatory-equivalent sections of Mental health services in Australia. Age-standardised rates for these sections were calculated excluding ACT population data.

    Average annual rates of change

    In this publication, the average annual rates of change or growth rates have been calculated as geometric rates:

    Average rate of change = ((Pn/Po)^(1/n) -1) x 100

    where:
    Pn= value in the later time period
    Po= value in the earlier time period
    n = number of years between the 2 time periods.

    Average annual rates of change are not calculated where data are incomplete.

    Confidence intervals

    A confidence interval is a range of values that is used to describe the uncertainty around an estimate, usually from a sample survey. Generally speaking, confidence intervals describe how different the estimate could have been if the underlying conditions stayed the same but variability in sampling (i.e. selecting a different sample from the population) had led to a different set of data. Confidence intervals are calculated with a stated probability (commonly 95%); this means that there is a 95% chance that the confidence interval includes the true value.

    Indirect expenditure

    The National Mental Health Establishments Database collects information on direct and indirect recurrent expenditure. Direct recurrent expenditure comprises salaries and wages, and selected non-salary expenditure, and is collected at the individual mental health service unit level.
    Indirect recurrent expenditure is additional expenditure associated with the provision of mental health services not incurred or reported at the individual service unit level. Indirect expenditure is reported at 3 overarching levels above the individual service unit level:

    • the organisational level; an organisation may or may not comprise a number of individual service units
    • the regional level
    • the state/territory level.

    Some of these indirect expenditure items can be directly linked to the provision of services by the service units. Specifically, at the organisational and regional levels the expenditure on the following items is directly related to individual mental health service units and thus has been apportioned to units in the organisation or region reporting the indirect funds:

    • program administration
    • support services
    • academic chairs
    • superannuation
    • workers compensation
    • insurance
    • patient transport services
    • property leasing
    • other indirect expenditure.

    The apportioning of indirect expenditure is calculated on the total direct funds for the service, as a proportion of the total for all service units in the organisation or region. The total allocation or apportioning of funds is reported in the indirect expenditure rows in Table EXP.1.

    The remaining indirect expenditure categories of education and training, research, mental health promotion, service development costs associated with the startup of new services and costs associated with the establishment and operation of jurisdictional Mental Health Act review bodies are not apportioned to mental health service units. State/territory level expenditure is also not apportioned to mental health service units. The total for these residual categories is reported in the row 'Other indirect expenditure' in Table EXP.1. Note that grants to non-government-organisations are not regarded as indirect expenditure.

    Deflators

    Expenditure aggregates in this report are expressed in current prices and/or constant prices. The transformation of current prices to constant prices is termed 'deflation', using price indexes or 'deflators'. There are a variety of deflators that can be used to translate current prices into constant prices. The deflators that were used by AIHW for the various items in the Expenditure on mental health services section are outlined in the table below. For further information on the methodology used to calculate deflators, refer to Health expenditure Australia 2013–14 (AIHW 2015).


    Table Tech.1: Area of health expenditure, by type of deflator applied
    Area of expenditure Deflator applied
    Public psychiatric hospitals/acute hospitals with a specialised psychiatric unit or ward Government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) hospitals and nursing homes(a)
    Community mental health care services Professional health workers wage rate index(b)
    Residential mental health services Professional health workers wage rate index(b)
    Grants to non‑government‑operated organisations Professional health workers wage rate index(b)
    Other indirect expenditure Government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) hospitals and nursing homes(a)
    Private psychiatric hospital expenditure Government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) hospitals and nursing homes(a)
    Medicare expenditure on mental health‑related services Medicare medical services fees charged(b)
    Expenditure on mental health‑related medications subsidised under the PBS and RPBS PBS pharmaceuticals(b)
    Australian Government expenditure on mental health‑related services Government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) hospitals and nursing homes(a)
    Expenditure on specialised mental health services Government final consumption expenditure (GFCE) hospitals and nursing homes(a)
    1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (unpublished data).
    2. AIHW Health Expenditure database (AIHW 2010).

    Reference

    AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2015. Health expenditure Australia 2013–14. Cat. no. HWE 63. Canberra: AIHW.